Friday, May 27, 2011

Principles of Technology in the Computer.

Principles of Technology in the Computer.

In 1670 the German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz perfected this and invented a machine that could also multiply.
The French inventor Joseph Marie Jacquard, when designing an automatic loom, used thin wood perforated plates to control the fabric used in complex designs. During 1880, the American Statistical Herman Hollerith conceived the idea of ​​using punched cards,
similar to the Jacquard cards, to process data. Hollerith got compile statistical information to the general population census of 1890 the United States through the use of a punch card system
to be on electrical contacts.
Also in the nineteenth century, British mathematician and inventor Charles Babbage worked out the principles of modern digital computer. He invented a series of machines, as the Difference Engine, designed to solve complex mathematical problems. Many historians consider Babbage and his partner, Augusta Ada Byron British Mathematics (1815-1852), daughter of English poet Lord Byron, as the true inventors of the modern digital computer. The technology of the time was not able to transfer their concepts of successful practice, but one of his inventions, the analytical engine, and had many of the features of a modern computer. Includes a current or inflow and a pack of punched cards, a memory for storing data, a processor for
r mathematics and a printer for permanent record.
analog computers began to be built in the twentieth century. The first model calculations performed by rotating shafts and gears. With these machines evaluated the numerical approximations of equations too difficult to be able to solve by other methods. During the two world wars, analog systems were used for mechanical and electrical part, to predict the path of torpedoes from submarines and remote control bombs in aviation.
During the Second World War (1939-1945), a team of
scientists and mathematicians working in Bletchley Park, north London, created what was considered the first fully electronic digital computer, the Colossus. In December 1943, Colossus, 1500 válvulaso incorporating vacuum tubes, is now operational. It was used by the team led by Alan Turing to decode encrypted radio messages from the Germans. In 1939, regardless of this project, John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry had already built a prototype electronic machine at Iowa State College (USA). Subsequent research prototype and is made in the anonymity and was later eclipsed by the development of the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC English, Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) in 1946.
The ENIAC, which as shown is based largely on the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC English, Atanasoff-Berry Computer), obtained a patent that expired in 1973, several decades later.
The ENIAC contained 18,000 vacuum tubes and had a speed of several hundred multiplications per minute, but his program was connected to the processor and must be changed manually.
Is a successor to the ENIAC built with a storage program that is based on the concepts of Hungarian-American mathematician John von Neumann. The instructions are stored in a memory call, which released the limitations of computer speed paper tape reader during implementation and help resolve problems without having to connect to the computer.
In the late 1950's the use of transistor in computers marked the advent of smaller logical elements, quick and versatile machines with valves allowed. Because transistors use much less energy and have a longer life, its development was due to the emergence of more sophisticated machines, which were called or second-generation computers. The components are made smaller and the spaces between them, so that the system was cheaper.
In late 1960 there was the integrated circuit (IC), which allowed the production of multiple transistors on a silicon substrate where the interconnects were soldiers. The integrated circuit allowed a further reduction in price, size and error rates.
The microprocessor has become a reality in the mid 1970's, with the introduction of circuit scale integration (LSI stands for Large Scale Integrated) and, later, with the circuit of large scale integration (by VLSI acronym for Very Large Scale Integrated), with several thousand soldiers interconnected transistors on a silicon substrate.

Saturday, May 7, 2011

Cell History

Cell History
We can say that history is brief but intense cell.
While the first call was made from this small wonder (although at that time was not so small) was the April 3, 1973 and who made who patented the invention was MartinCooper was business manager for Motorola systems, the studies to reach what we know today have been conducted for some decades earlier.

26 years ago and launching the first model cell phone, the DynaTAC 8000x Motorola - known as the "Brick. "

The first phones were almost incomprehensible due to the high cost that they were alsovery uncomfortable, weighing almost a kilo!! And the battery lasted less than an hour.
Today almost half the planet has one, over 80% of the population has access to mobile networks in 2008 sold more than one billion units. It is the most requested gift for theholidays or birthdays.

The models are varied and not only function as cell, but that must be met according toschedule, camera and video, some serve to chat and not to mention text messages.

Of course this created a dependency, nobody goes out without his cell phone and certainly not left out of study of psychologists, sociologists and other professionals from many branches.

Friday, May 6, 2011

Internet History (Part 2).

Internet History (Part 2).

In 1971 he created the first program to send email. It was Ray Tomlinson, a program combininginternal email and file transfer program.
Also that year a group of researchers from MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) presented the first proposal of the "Protocol for transmitting files over the Internet" (RFC 114). The 70's pass by connecting directly with institutions or other networks connecting to the ARPANET and the responsible development of standards and protocols such as Telnet, specification or file transfer protocol
voice networks (NVP, Network Voice Protocol). In 1979 ARPA created the first commission to control the Internet settings, and after several years of work, finally ending in 1981 to define the TCP / IP (Transfer Control iProtocol / Internet Protocol) and adopted it as ARPANET standard in 1982, replacing the NCP.Internet is short for Interconnected Networks, ie network of networks, or also known as Networks International, or International Network. Also in those years are based Microsoft (1975) and Apple (1976). In 1983 ARPANET was separated from the military network thatoriginated, so that no military purposes and may be considered this date as the birth of the Internet. In that year he leaves the first version of Microsoft Windows.
In 1985, fifteen years after the first proposal, ending the development of even existing protocol for the Internet file transfer (FTP, File Transfer Protocol), based on the philosophy of client-server. From 1987 began the great expansion, partly due to last year created the NSFNET, which established five supercomputer centers to provide high processing power.It is now when incorporated in various Internet networks in Europe. Also in that year found the first computer application hypertext.
In the United States the large increase in users in 1990 caused the withdrawal of the ARPA agency, and its network happened to be in charge of the NSF.
These were years of uncertainty because no one had devised the network for the purposes and dimensions that were reached, and those responsible were overwhelmed. During those years strengthened backbone networks and devised the WWW (World Wide Web - World Wide Web) at CERN by Tim Berners-Lee, its inventor, who created the foundations of the HTTP transmission protocol, the language of HTML documents and the concept of the URL.

Thursday, May 5, 2011

Internet history (part 1).

Internet history (part 1).

The Cold War Ruled the World, the United States Should Be Informed about themovements of the Soviet Union, ran the 60's and Telecom WAS Beginning to Develop.Utmost Importance Of

Knowledge That Was the moving parts Would the Kremlin,American spies Were Scattered Throughout the World and the Need to create anetwork Decentralized necesidad.En Became to the U.S. 1965 DARPA (defenseadvanced Research Projects Agency - Defense Research Projects Agency) Promotesa study on "cooperative network of time-sharing computers. In 1969, DARPA, with therand Corporation company Developed Without a central network nodes based onpacket switching. The information is Divided Into Each packet contains packets and theaddress of origin, destination, sequence number and Some information.

Packets toreach the destination is sorted by sequence number and got together to Give Rise toinformation. When traveling-through the network, more Difficult to lose WAS data, if aparticular package Because Did not Reach the destination or arrive defective, thecomputer Should Receive the information just HAD to ask the computer sending thepackage WAS missing. The communications protocol Called NCP (Network Control Protocol).
This network united in Principle only a small number of computers and darpanetcalled, But in 1972 it changed name to stis ARPANET, when connected to forty nodes.